Standard Dietary Recommendations

 

  Whole Cereal Grains

The principal food of each meal is whole grains, comprising at least half the total volume of the meal. Cooked whole grains are preferable to flour products, as they are more nutritionally complete. Whole cereal grains and whole grain products include

 

Regular use

Short-grain brown rice

Medium grain brown rice

Millet

Barley, pearl barley

Buckwheat

Corn

Rye

Wheat berries

Whole oats

Occasional 

Sweet brown rice, mochi (pounded 
    sweet brown rice)

Long-grain brown rice

Rice cakes

Noodles (whole-wheat, udon, soba,   
    somen, quinoa, rice, spelt)

Unyeasted whole-wheat or rye bread

Cracked wheat, bulgur, couscous

Steel-cut oats, rolled oats

Corn grits, corn meal, polenta

Amaranth

Quinoa

Rye flakes

Spelt

 

  Soups

One or two bowls of soup seasoned with miso or tamari soy sauce is recommended every day (approximately 5–10% of daily intake). The flavor should be mild; not too salty and not too bland. Prepare soups with a variety of ingredients, changing them daily. Include a variety of seasonal vegetables, seaweed (especially wakame or kombu) and occasionally add grains and/or beans. Daily soups can include genmai (brown rice) miso, hatcho (soybean) miso, mugi (barley) miso, or tamari soy sauce. Kome (rice), red, white, and yellow miso may be used on occasion.

 

  Vegetables

One-quarter or more (25–30%) of daily meals includes fresh vegetables prepared in a variety of ways, including steaming, boiling, baking, pressure cooking or sauteing (with a small amount of sesame, corn, or other vegetable oil). In general, some smaller portion of vegetable intake may be eaten in the form of pickles or salad. Commercial mayonnaise and dressings should be avoided.

 

Green and white leafy vegetables for regular use

Bok choy

Carrot tops

Chinese cabbage

Collard greens

Daikon greens

Dandelion greens

Kale

Leeks

Mustard greens

Parsley

Scallion

Turnip greens

Watercress

 

Stem/root vegetables for regular use

Burdock

Carrots

Daikon (long white radish)

Dandelion root

Jinenjo (mountain potato)

Lotus root

Onion

Parsnip

Radish

Rutabaga

Turnip

 

Ground vegetables for regular use

Acorn squash

Broccoli

Brussels sprouts

Butternut squash

Cabbage

Cauliflower

Hubbard squash

Hokkaido pumpkin

Pumpkin

Red cabbage

String beans

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Butternut squash

 

Vegetables for occasional use

Celery

Chives

Coltsfoot

Cucumber

Endive

Escarole

Green peas

Iceberg lettuce

Jerusalem artichoke

Kohlrabi

Lamb's-quarters

Mushrooms

Patty pan squash

Romaine lettuce

Salsify

Shiitake mushrooms

Snap beans

Snow peas

Sprouts

Summer squash

Swiss chard

Wax or yellow beans

 

  Beans

A small portion (10%) of daily meals include cooked beans. The most suitable beans may include

 

Regular Use

Aduki beans

Black soy beans

Chickpeas (garbanzos)

Lentils (green)

Occasional

Black-eyed peas

Black turtle beans

Kidney beans

Great northern beans

Lima beans

Navy beans

Pinto beans

Soybeans

Split peas

Whole dried peas

 

 

Chickpeas, lentils, and aduki beans

 

  Bean and Wheat Products

A few times a week, the following foods may be added to vegetable dishes or soups, as a substitute for bean dishes:

 

Tempeh: a pressed soybean cake made from split soybeans, water, and a special enzyme

 

Seitan: wheat gluten, prepared from whole-wheat flour

 

Tofu: fresh soybean curd, made from soybeans and nigari (a natural sea salt coagulant); used in soups, vegetable dishes, and dressings

 

Dried tofu: dried soybean curd used in soups and vegetable dishes

 

Natto: whole cooked soybeans fermented with beneficial enzymes; served with whole grains

 

Fu: dried, puffed, and baked wheat gluten or seitan used in soups or stews

 

  Sea Vegetables

These important foods are served in small quantities and comprise a few percent of daily intake. Sea vegetables are prepared in a variety of ways — for example, in soups, with beans (kombu is especially recommended), or as side dishes. Sea vegetable dishes may be flavored with a moderate amount of tamari soy sauce and brown rice vinegar. Sea vegetables for regular use include

 

Agar agar (for gelatin molds)

 

Arame (as a side dish)

 

Dulse (in soups, as a part of side dish, or condiment)

 

Kombu (for soup stocks, as a side dish, or condiment)

 

Hiziki (as a side dish)

 

Irish moss (in soups or as aspic)

 

Mekabu (as a side dish)

 

Nori (as a garnish, condiment, or used for rice balls, etc.)

 

Sea palm (as a side dish)

 

Wakame (in soups, especially miso soup, as a side dish, or condiment)

 

  Additional Foods

Once or twice a week, a small amount of fresh white-meat fish or seafood may be eaten, if one’s condition allows. These varieties include

Carp

Clams

Cod

Flounder

Haddock 

Halibut

Herring (fresh)

Mahi mahi

Oysters

Red snapper

Scallops

Sea bass

Shrimp

Sole

Smelt

Tile fish

Trout

Iriko (small dried fish)

Chirimen Iriko (very tiny dried fish)

 

Roasted seeds and nuts, lightly salted with sea salt or seasoned with tamari, may be enjoyed as snacks. Roasted seeds are used occasionally, whereas roasted nuts are consumed much less often. It is preferable to minimize the use of nuts and nut butters, as they are high in fats and difficult to digest.

 

Occasional

Pumpkin seeds 

Sesame seeds

Sunflower seeds

Less often

Almonds

Peanuts

Pecans

Walnuts

 

Other snacks may include rice cakes, popcorn, puffed grains, roasted beans, and grains.

 

Desserts are best when sweetened with a high-quality sweetener, especially those made from grain, such as rice syrup, barley malt, and amasake, and may be enjoyed in small amounts. Dried fruit and fresh fruit may be eaten on occasion by those in good health. Fruit juice is not recommended as a regular beverage. Only locally grown fruits are recommended. Thus, if you live in a temperature zone, avoid tropical and semitropical fruit.

 

  Sweets

Sweet vegetables

Cabbage

Carrot

Daikon

Onion

Parsnip

Pumpkin

Squash

 

Sweeteners

Amasake

Apple juice or cider

Barley malt

Chestnuts

Dried local fruit

Raisins

Rice syrup

 

Temperate- climate fruit

Apples

Apricots

Blueberries

Cantaloupe

Cherries

Grapes

Peaches

Pears

Plums

Raspberries

Strawberries

Watermelon

 

  Beverages

Please use spring or well water for teas. It is best to drink only when thirsty. Recommended beverages may include

 

Regular use

Bancha twig tea (kukicha)

Bancha stem tea

Boiled water

Roasted barley tea

Roasted rice tea

Spring or well water

Occasional

Dandelion tea

Grain coffee

Kombu tea

Mu tea

Umeboshi tea 

 

Less often

Barley green tea

Beer

Local fruit juice

Nachi green tea

Sake

Soymilk

Vegetable juices

  Condiments

The following condiments are recommended for daily or special uses:

 

Tamari soy sauce: Use mostly in cooking. Please normally refrain from using tamari soy sauce on rice or vegetables at the table.

 

Sesame salt (gomashio): 10–20 parts roasted sesame seeds to 1 part roasted sea salt. Wash and dry roasted seeds. Grind seeds together with sea salt in a small earthenware bowl called a suribachi, until about two-thirds of the seeds are crushed.

 

Roasted seaweed powder: Use either wakame, kombu, dulse, or kelp. Roast seaweed in the oven until nearly charred (approximately 350° for 5–10 minutes) and crush in a suribachi.

 

Sesame seaweed powder: 1–6 parts sesame seeds to 1 part seaweed [kombu wakame, nori, or ao-nori (green nori)]. Prepare as you would sesame salt.

 

Umeboshi plum: Plums that have been dried and pickled for over one year with sea salt are called ume (plum) boshi (dry) in Japanese.

 

Shiso leaves: Usually added to umeboshi plums to impart a reddish color and natural flavoring. Umeboshi stimulates the appetite and digestion and aids in maintaining an alkaline blood quality.

 

Shio (salt) kombu: Soak 1 cup of kombu until soft and cut into 2" square pieces. Add to 1/2 cup water and 1/2 cup tamari, bring to a boil and simmer until the liquid evaporates. Cool and put in a covered jar to keep. One to two pieces may be used on occasion as needed.

 

Nori condiment: Place dried nori or several sheets of fresh nori in approximately 1 cup of water and enough tamari soy sauce for a moderate salty taste. Simmer until most of the water cooks down to a thick paste.

 

Tekka: This condiment is made from 1 cup of minced burdock, lotus root, carrot, miso, sesame oil, and ginger flavor. It can be made at home or bought ready-made. Use sparingly due to its strong contracting nature.

 

Sauerkraut: Made from cabbage and sea salt, this can be eaten sparingly with a meal.

 

Other condiments for occasional use:

 

Takuan daikon pickle: A dried long pickle that can be taken in small amounts, with or after a meal.

 

Vinegar: Grain vinegar and umeboshi vinegar may be used moderately.

 

Ginger: May be used occasionally in a small volume as a garnish or flavoring in vegetable dishes, soups, pickled vegetables, and especially in fish and seafood dishes.

 

Horseradish or grated fresh daikon: May be used occasionally as a garnish to aid digestion, especially served with fish and seafood.

 

Pickles: Made with rice bran, brine, or other naturally pickled vegetables may be used in small amounts with or after meals.

 

  Oil and Seasoning in Cooking

For cooking oil, only high-quality, cold-pressed vegetable oil is recommended. Oil should be used in moderation for fried rice, fried noodles, and sauteing vegetables. Generally two to three times a week is reasonable. Occasionally, oil may be used for deep-frying grains, vegetables, fish, and seafood.

 

Regular use

Corn oil

Dark sesame oil

Mustard seed oil

Sesame oil

Occasional

Safflower oil

Sunflower oil

 

Less often

Olive oil

Avoid

Commercially processed oils

Canola

Cottonseed

Peanut oil

Soybean oil

 

Naturally processed, unrefined sea salt is preferable to other varieties. Miso (soy paste) and tamari soy sauce (both containing sea salt) may also be used as seasonings. Use only naturally processed, non-chemicalized varieties. In general, seasonings are used moderately.

 

Regular use

Ginger

Miso

Sauerkraut

Tamari

Tamari (shoyu) soy sauce

Unrefined white or light grey sea salt

Umeboshi plum

Occasional

Horseradish

Mirin

Oil

Rice or other grain vinegar

Umeboshi vinegar

Umeboshi paste

 

Avoid

All commercial seasonings

All spices